Garden of Eatin' / How-To / Vegetables

Fish Heads Are the Secret To Growing the Best Tomatoes

Grow bigger and better tomatoes this summer

Tomato planting is something I look forward to every spring. I start counting the days from the time I sow my first seed to when I might have that first vine-ripened tomato in my hand, juices dripping down as I take a bite of the sweet, succulent flesh before it even makes it back to the kitchen.

If you’ve never tasted a homegrown tomato, you haven’t truly lived. And if you’ve never started your own tomato plants from seed, you’re definitely missing out — on the thousands of beautiful, colorful heirloom seed varieties that exist in this world.

My only advice for choosing tomato seeds is to go with ones you’ve never heard of before, and to simply start with your favorite color! (I personally love purple and black tomatoes… it might be a mental thing, but I feel the darker the flesh, the smokier and richer it tastes.)

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My favorite heirloom tomato varieties: Black Krim, Brandywine Red & Yellow Blend, Cherokee Purple, Moneymaker, Cuore di Bue

Tomatoes are fairly fuss-free. They don’t require any special conditions to sprout and they grow relatively quickly. They do just as well in the ground as they do in containers, and there are even certain tomato varieties that grow in shade.

But once they start producing more foliage, they need a lot of love to perform their best — their best meaning lots of flowers and lots of fruit.

In gardening parlance, tomatoes are called heavy feeders; that is, they require a lot of nutrients to flourish. They’re wild about fertilizer and before you even think about growing tomatoes, you should think about “growing” your soil first. Tomatoes like rich, amended soil teeming with worms and microbes.

The 2 things your tomatoes need for optimum growth

Two key nutrients must be present for tomatoes to thrive: phosphorus, which promotes the growth of flowers and fruit, and calcium, which prevents blossom end rot (that dreaded black sunken hole on the flower end of your calcium-deficient tomatoes).

Providing these nutrients right from the start ensures you’ll grow tall, beautiful, healthy plants laden with juicy tomatoes that are sure to be the envy of all your neighbors.

To a lesser extent, tomato plants also need nitrogen, but too much nitrogen could result in a big, bushy, and green tomato plant with no flowers.

How to feed the soil so you can feed your plants

I start my tomato planting by preparing the bed first.

First, compost: Over an established but empty bed, I spread a 2- to 3-inch layer of well-aged compost; sometimes it’s homemade, if I have enough, but most of the time it’s bagged compost.

(If you don’t have access to a good, organic, and aged compost locally, I recommend this one by Dr. Earth for a high-quality amendment you can buy online. It’s also available at some independent garden centers.)

Next, fertilizer: On top of the compost, I apply a granular, organic, all-purpose fertilizer (the one I like is a 4-4-4 blend). Those three numbers indicate the nutritional makeup of the fertilizer, also known as N-P-K, or nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

Once the compost and fertilizer are evenly spread across the bed, I dig them in with a spading fork (going only as deep as the fork), rake the soil smooth, and water well.

I like to let the bed sit for a day or two for the soil to settle back in before I plant.

Freshly prepared garden bed

So, tomatoes. Let’s get them in!

Get your tomato seedlings ready for planting (aka the aspirin trick)

Generally, I start my seeds in late winter, repot the seedlings into 4-inch pots in early spring, and depending on how things are going in the garden, transplant the tomatoes (again) into 1-gallon pots or put them straight in the ground.

(Your sowing and transplanting timeline may vary with your particular climate, microclimate, and expected frost dates.)

Tomato seedlings hardened off

I always start with healthy plants about a foot tall, whether it’s a foot tall in a 4-inch pot or a foot tall in a 1-gallon pot.

This tomato seedling spent a week outside getting hardened off, and looks primed for the garden.

Healthy tomato seedling

A couple of days before I transplant, I shower my tomato plants with aspirin spray to prepare them for the move.

Aspirin (the same stuff you can find at the pharmacy) contains salicylic acid, a chemical compound that’s naturally present in most plants.

Studies have found that in a tomato plant, salicylic acid (a plant hormone) is produced at high levels in response to a microbial attack on the plant.

Oftentimes, this response happens too late in the natural cycle. But since we know salicylic acid triggers the plant’s defense system, we can give our tomato seedlings a little immunity boost before they go in the garden and have to face all kinds of microbes, good and bad.

To make a foliar spray, dissolve a regular-strength aspirin tablet (325 mg) in a gallon-size sprayer or watering can.

Try to find uncoated aspirin as it dissolves easier; no need for brand names, I looked for the cheapest aspirin at my local drugstore and found a generic version on sale.

Thoroughly spray all the leaves, making sure to get the undersides.

Aspirin foliar spray to boost plant immunity
Spray the undersides of the leaves

What to put in your tomato planting hole for fantastic growth

A couple days after their aspirin shower, your tomatoes are ready for the dirt.

You want to avoid transplanting in the middle of a glaringly sunny day or a ferociously windy day, which could add undue stress to the plant.

Wait for a bit of cloud cover, or transplant in late afternoon when the sun is lower and your tomatoes have a chance to recover from transplant shock.

First, dig the hole: In your freshly prepared bed, dig a 1-foot-deep hole. You want enough room to throw a bunch of soil amendments down the tomato planting hole, as well as bury the stem up to its lowest set of leaves.

If you’re transplanting a larger plant from a gallon-size container, there’s no need to dig a 2-foot-deep hole. Simply dig a 1-foot-deep trough and plant your tomato sideways in this trench.

Dig a foot-deep hole

Oh, and if you have a post hole digger, now is a good time to break it out as it makes the deep-hole-digging much easier… or at least, my husband made it look easy, after I’d painstakingly dug the first five holes with a shovel.

But his post hole digger holes? Perfect, every time.

Post hole

Next, add these soil amendments to the hole: First down the hole, and our secret ingredient when planting tomatoes, is a fish head.

Yes, a raw fish head! (Fresh or frozen works equally.)

I used to get mine from the local fish market for 90 cents a pound, but now I try to save and freeze the heads whenever I procure whole fish.

If you’re resourceful, you might even find them for free. Call around to restaurants and supermarkets, or make friends with fishermen. I use pretty hefty heads that weigh about a pound each.

Fish heads

So why would I throw a fish head down the hole?

Growing up in a seafood-loving household, I remember watching my parents bury all kinds of seafood (fish heads included) in the garden, and growing some pretty remarkable things for living in the arid landscape of Southern Nevada.

And maybe you’ve heard tales of people burying fish heads under their rosebushes or between rows of crops to fertilize their soil.

Fish heads are not merely folklore in the garden. They’ve been used as natural fertilizer for centuries all over the world, and in fact, the American Indian Squanto taught the Pilgrims how to sow seeds with a small fish.

Raw fish decays quickly in the ground, releasing nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and trace minerals to roots. And as we know, tomatoes especially love phosphorus and calcium!

But you don’t have to limit yourself solely to fish heads. Fish guts, fish bones, and shrimp shells all work well as fertilizer, as do whole carcasses from large salmon (eat the fillets but leave the heads and excess meat that you can’t scrape off).

Use whatever is cheap or free, I say!

Buried a foot deep, they’re not likely to be dug up by critters — and I have entire families of raccoons patrolling my property every night. (Personally, I think it’s too much work for them when they have a veritable buffet of trash cans lined up on the street.)

Shrimp shells

Next to go down the hole are two aspirin tabs (for a shot of immunity) and a handful of crushed eggshells (for a calcium boost).

Crushed eggshells from my backyard chickens
Add aspirin and crushed eggshells

Then, I add about a half-cup of fertilizer specially formulated for tomatoes or vegetables (like this one from Dr. Earth) and about a quarter-cup of bone meal, which is a good organic source of phosphorus and calcium.

No measuring cups necessary, I just eyeball everything in my trowel.

I cover these amendments with a couple inches of soil, then water them in.

Finally, bury the tomato plant: Before your tomato plant goes in, pinch off the lowest two or three sets of leaves on the stem.

Gently loosen the root ball with your hands and lower the plant down the hole. The soil line should be right at the last set of leaves; the rest of the stem gets buried, as new roots will grow from any part of the stem below ground. (I talked more about adventitious roots in my original post on repotting tomatoes.)

Pinch off the lowest sets of leaves and gently loosen the root ball
Lower the tomato plant down the hole

Backfill the hole with soil (avoid tamping it down vigorously with your hands or trowel, as it will settle naturally) and create a small well around the plant.

The key to watering your tomato plant (don’t be stingy!)

Finally, water your tomato plant deeply and thoroughly.

You want the water to reach the very bottom of the roots, which are now 8 inches below the surface. I use upwards of a gallon of water per plant, letting the water fully drain into the soil between each soak.

Create a small well around the plant
Successfully transplanted tomato

After that initial watering, your plants will only need a deep watering once or twice a week, depending on your climate. A moisture meter like this one is a good, cheap investment to make sure you aren’t underwatering or overwatering.

I generally water tomatoes when the first 3 to 4 inches of soil feels dry to the touch; remember, their roots are waaaay down there, especially as the season goes on.

Caring for your tomatoes: mulching, staking, and fertilizing

If you’re transplanting more than one tomato plant, space them at least 2 feet apart so they have plenty of air flow between the foliage.

I usually wait until my plants are at least a foot tall (and the leaves are further from the soil) before I mulch the bed with straw. Mulch holds in moisture, and any dampness on or near the leaves can lead to disease, especially on a susceptible young plant.

For staking options, I personally like the Florida weave method if I’m growing rows of tomato plants, but plenty of caging options exist.

If you plan to grow tomatoes year after year, consider investing in sturdy square cages, and not the cheap, flimsy metal ones that look like upside-down cones.

You should stake your plants sooner than later, before the roots have a chance to sprawl and you risk damaging and disturbing them.

Feed your plants throughout the season with your preferred fertilizer. I alternate between tomato fertilizer and fish fertilizer, and always see accelerated growth with loads of blossoms.

Come summer, those once-little seedlings will turn into thick, verdant vines laden with luscious tomatoes!

Turn them into easy homemade tomato sauce (with the skins on!) or make oven-dried tomatoes with your harvest. At the end of the season, any immature fruits left on the vines can go into a batch of pickled green tomatoes or green tomato salsa verde.

Tomato Growing Sources

Fish Heads Are the Secret To Growing the Best Tomatoes 1
Dr. Earth Natural Choice All Purpose Compost | Dr. Earth Premium Gold All Purpose Fertilizer | Ames 4-Tine Forged Spading Fork | GeriCare Uncoated Aspirin | Chapin 1-Gallon Home and Garden Sprayer | Fiskars Steel Posthole Digger | Dr. Earth HomeGrown Tomato, Vegetable & Herb Fertilizer | Dr. Earth Premium Bone Meal | Dr. Meter Moisture Sensor | Neptune’s Harvest Organic Hydrolized Fish & Seaweed Fertilizer

This post updated from an article that originally appeared on March 31, 2014.

Growing Tomatoes From Start to Finish

Linda Ly About Author

I'm a plant lover, passionate road-tripper, and cookbook author whose expert advice and bestselling books have been featured in TIME, Outside, HGTV, and Food & Wine. The No-Waste Vegetable Cookbook is my latest book. Garden Betty is where I write about modern homesteading, farm-to-table cooking, and outdoor adventuring — all that encompass a life well-lived outdoors. After all, the secret to a good life is... Read more »


  • Avatar
    June 7, 2018 at 8:13 pm

    Hi Linda,

    Thank you for a very educational article!

    Let me guess. Is the tomato in the first picture a Black Krim by any chance?


    • Avatar
      Linda from Garden Betty
      June 21, 2018 at 1:09 am

      You’re welcome! And that’s a great guess – I don’t actually remember which one that was, as I tend to gravitate toward black/purple tomatoes and Black Krim is one of my favorites that I’ve grown. 🙂

  • Avatar
    May 27, 2018 at 2:25 pm

    Never heard of the fish heads!! Crazy. Gonna try

  • Avatar
    Clay Mahon
    May 17, 2018 at 9:20 pm

    I used the fish this year and I’m having problems with the plants not growing and they have terrible leaf curl, did I do something wrong?

    • Avatar
      Linda from Garden Betty
      May 25, 2018 at 2:48 am

      It’s hard to say because leaf curl can occur from any number of things: hot dry weather and uneven watering, rainy weather and cool temperatures, overpruning of the plant, or tomato yellow leaf curl virus. The first three should be easy to rule out or remedy, and as the season progresses the plants shouldn’t be affected too much as long as you take steps to correct the issues.

  • Avatar
    March 4, 2018 at 7:07 pm

    Will the aspirin spray work on other plants?

    • Avatar
      Linda from Garden Betty
      March 7, 2018 at 4:28 am


  • Avatar
    Nilda Caamano
    May 1, 2017 at 5:32 am

    Hi Linda, i made self irrigating containers from 55 gallon drums and was wondering if i could still add the fish below the plant? I have about 2 feet of soil in the container. Thanks for a great post!

    • Avatar
      Linda from Garden Betty
      May 18, 2017 at 6:38 am

      Yes, just place the fish in the bottom of the container.

  • Avatar
    dawn Johnson
    March 23, 2017 at 1:13 pm

    Im excited to try your way to prep my soil for Tomatoes, I read an article suggesting spraying ASA water on plants 2-3 times per month during the growing season. If I place 2 ASA in bottom of my hole, do I also need to spray with ASA water ?

    • Avatar
      Linda from Garden Betty
      April 6, 2017 at 8:36 am

      I don’t think it would hurt, but I also don’t know if it would help any more. Personally, I’d just stick to putting the tabs in the hole and following up with a regular fertilizing schedule.

  • Avatar
    Charlie Lowe
    February 10, 2017 at 1:03 am

    how to grow large tomatoes

  • Avatar
    Ralph Bernstein
    February 9, 2017 at 10:40 pm

    hi LINDA i live in north las vegas and every year my tomato plants grow well to about july then they all die so i get very few tomatoes what can i do to get them through the heat of summer

    • Avatar
      Linda from Garden Betty
      February 18, 2017 at 7:48 am

      I suggest giving your tomatoes afternoon shade or growing them in an east-facing bed. If you typically grow them in the ground, you can also try putting them in large pots or half-barrel planters on wheels, so you can move them throughout the day to avoid the blazing sun.

  • Avatar
    August 6, 2016 at 7:08 pm

    My tomato’s are turning red while they are still small. About the size of a Roma Tomato, but these are early girl. I have picked them and they were ready. I would prefer good sized tomatoes. Been growing these for years and I have never seen anything like it. Any ideas?

    • Linda Ly of Garden Betty
      Linda Ly of Garden Betty
      October 15, 2016 at 1:25 am

      It’s hard for me to guess as I don’t know your growing conditions. Factors that can affect tomato size include the size of container, amount/type/quality of soil used, type of fertilizer added throughout the season, amount and frequency of water or sunlight, and quality of seeds.

  • Avatar
    May 24, 2016 at 12:42 pm

    Hi Linda! I live in MD and each year we start our tomato plants from seeds we save- ( all heirloom). Do you rotate your tomatoes every year since you start your own?

    • Linda Ly of Garden Betty
      Linda Ly of Garden Betty
      October 17, 2016 at 6:16 pm

      Yes, I usually do a 2-year rotation schedule for all my plants, unless they had disease, in which I case I use a 3-year rotation.

  • Avatar
    April 17, 2016 at 4:05 pm

    Hi Linda! I decided to try to learn how to garden this year, and your blog has been super helpful. 🙂 I want to grow a tomato plant in a container – can I still follow these instructions if it won’t be planted in the ground?

    • Linda Ly of Garden Betty
      Linda Ly of Garden Betty
      April 26, 2016 at 10:18 pm

      Yes, just make sure you use a large enough pot for your tomato plant. (Or if growing a smaller determinate variety, use a smaller fish head.)

      • Avatar
        July 8, 2016 at 5:51 pm

        Update: Planted my wimpy little tomato seedling according to your instructions a few months ago, and it’s HUGE now. Thanks for the advice. 🙂

        • Linda Ly of Garden Betty
          Linda Ly of Garden Betty
          October 15, 2016 at 2:40 am


  • Avatar
    September 8, 2015 at 12:11 pm

    Can entire fish be put in the hole rather than just the heads? I’m talking small 8-10 fish. I wasn’t too happy with my tomatoes this year, need to figure out a way to make them better next year. I’m glad i found this article.

    • Linda Ly
      Linda Ly
      September 9, 2015 at 3:23 pm

      Sure, use whatever is most cost-efficient for you!

  • Avatar
    August 22, 2015 at 12:37 am

    Just tried a ripe tomato and it tastes of iron ! Any suggestions? I’m growing then in a greenhouse in the UK, and used liquid feed. Thinking of disposing of the lot !

    • Linda Ly
      Linda Ly
      August 23, 2015 at 4:02 pm

      Sorry, I have no idea what the problem could be, but it sounds like it stems from the soil or fertilizer you use.

    • Avatar
      John Carter
      December 4, 2015 at 2:51 pm

      I wonder if that iron taste is a dangerous bacterial infection. It reminds me of a big problem I had last year with dehydrating tomato slices. I had switched off the dehydrator overnight, for safety reasons, then restarted it the following morning. The tomato slices first began foaming slightly then went black after a time, before fully drying, and smelled like iron. I’m sure it had to do with undesirable fermentation, while sitting warm, for a prolonged period overnight. Did your tomato have any black spots in it?

  • Avatar
    Sara Griffith
    August 17, 2015 at 5:03 pm

    Hi Linda!

    This post was THE most helpful starting my tomatoes this year. THANK YOU! I live just north of DTLA and this was my first time trying to grow tomatoes in Southern California. I moved to a new place with a front yard in June, so I started my seedlings accordingly knowing I wouldn’t be able to actually plant them until June (I know this is very late) Things have ben going well, but I have a MAJOR spider mite problem. I have tried a few things and nothing seems to help and it’s gotten pretty out of hand! I water when they start to be wilty and droopy…I know tomatoes like to be HOT and don’t really like to be wet.

    I tried a neem spray I had on hand and it did not help at all! Bonide 022 Ready-to-Use Neem Oil.

    I have another insecticidal soap that has rosemary and peppermint oils in it that works well for aphids, but doesn’t work on the mites either, and burns the plants even when I use at night. I don’t remember the brand at the moment.

    I just ordered “Safer Brand” 3 in 1……

    I have diatomaceous earth. I have thought of trying to create a spray?

    Lady bugs!?

    I have Alaska fish. Foliar spray? But tomatoes don’t like to get wet?

    They are all over my eggplant too. I have tried to trim back effected parts of the plants but if I keep doing that….there won’t be much left.

    What might be a good way to prevent this in the future? A ring of diatomaceous earth around each plant to get them before they start to climb??

    Any insight would be much appreciated!

    • Linda Ly
      Linda Ly
      August 20, 2015 at 8:55 pm

      Spider mites are some of the worst pests! And they thrive in hot, dry weather, so the drought isn’t helping the situation.

      If you haven’t already, you should grow lots of beneficial plants around your vegetable garden to encourage the good bugs to come in. Spider mites have natural predators like ladybugs and big-eyed bugs, and these predators are attracted to plants like yarrow, tansy, marigolds, and umbellifers (the flowers found on dill, fennel, and Queen Anne’s lace). You can buy ladybugs, of course, but they won’t stick around if they don’t have a food source.

      If you use insecticides, be careful that they don’t eliminate those good bugs. Some of them target ALL bugs, not just the bad ones. Another drawback to insecticides is that they sometimes don’t reach the leaves if you have a heavy spider mite infestation, since the webs can block the sprays.

      The key to keeping spider mites under control is to make sure your plants are not stressed for water. Make sure they’re heavily mulched to conserve moisture and have adequate water, especially in summer. You should not wait until they look wilty and droopy before watering; they need consistent moisture to maintain their health and vigor. If plants are stressed, their chemistry changes which actually makes them more appealing to pests. (This is one of the reasons aphids tend to show up at the end of the season, when many plants are on their last legs.)

      You are right in that tomato plants do not like to be wet; however this mostly applies in the evenings, and to plants that are not properly mulched. To combat a spider mite problem, you can use a forceful spray of water on the leaves (especially the undersides) to try to dislodge the mites and their webs. Do this early in the morning so the leaves have time to dry out before nightfall. Make sure the plants are mulched, which keeps the soil from splashing water onto the leaves (and introducing bacteria or fungi that way).

      Tomatoes generally like hot weather, but TOO hot weather can prevent fruit from setting. If your daytime highs are consistently over 90F, you might see your blossoms dropping before turning into fruit. They just don’t do well in extreme temps, so if summertime is especially harsh where you live, it’s a good idea to provide some shade midday to protect tomato blossoms and immature fruit. Otherwise, you may need to look into growing more heat-tolerant tomato varieties.

      Hope all of this helps!

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