Beets can be grown indoors for their roots as well as their nutrient-packed leafy greens. (The greens look and taste very similar to swiss chard, which isn’t surprising since the plants are closely related.)
Carrots, like most root vegetables, grow well indoors since they don’t require as much light as fruiting vegetables to produce a good crop—they can make do with at least 4 hours of direct sun if that’s all you have.
Unlike their lanky, climbing counterparts (pole beans), bush beans stay upright and compact. They’re also one of the very few fruiting crops that can produce a decent harvest with as little as 4 to 6 hours of direct sunlight.
You can try a non-vining variety like Tendersweet, a snap pea that grows upright to about 18 inches and doesn’t need any kind of support (though a small trellis or teepee can help keep the vines more manageable for easier harvesting).
Planting instructions say you can grow micro tomatoes in a 6-inch pot, which is amazing if all you can spare is a windowsill. But if you have the space, a 1-gallon pot will yield better results and give the roots more room to develop.