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Fiery Fermented Hot Sauce: 3 Simple Variations

Fiery fermented hot sauce: 3 simple variations

Around this time of year, as our Indian summer is winding down, there’s always a big burst of chile peppers from the garden.

It seems like they know they’re going to sleep soon, so they put their all into producing pods before retreating into dormancy.

I wouldn’t say my pepper plants are at the end of their season just yet, but as we creep closer to winter and our weather is (finally) cooling down, I’ve noticed the flowers are fewer and farther in between.

Chile pepper plants are perennials (though most people grow them as annuals) and in mild climates, they start fruiting in spring, go gangbusters all summer and fall, and overwinter easily outside.

I’ve been harvesting heaping bowls of hot peppers all year long among the Chinese Five-Color, Filius Blue, fish pepper, jalapeño, serrano, and habanero plants I keep in pots all over the yard.

Whatever wasn’t used fresh was laid out to dry, and with my last couple of pounds, I decided to preserve them a different way: by fermenting them into hot sauce.

Related: Spicy Fermented Salsa: Take Tomatoes to the Next Level

Pile of homegrown hot chile peppers ready for fermenting

Why do you ferment hot sauce?

Fermented hot sauce has a deeper and more complex tangy flavor that you won’t find in vinegar-based hot sauces. And since it’s a “living” product, the flavor continues to develop in the fridge and become even more delicious as it ages.

Time is your friend, as the fermentation process produces more flavor than you could ever get without it.

Plus, fermented hot sauce contains all that wild bacteria that’s so good for you!

Read more: Ruby Kraut (and Why It’s So Good For You)

Several store-bought brands of hot sauce are fermented, including Tabasco, Huy Fong’s Sriracha, and Frank’s RedHot.

However, you can make your own at home (easily!) with just three ingredients: chile peppers, salt, and garlic. (Anything else you add would only be for flavor.)

Chunky fermented hot sauce in a jar

Though I call this a hot sauce, you can actually keep the fermented product more as a paste (as pictured here), or turn it into a thin and pourable hot sauce or Louisiana-style hot sauce.

The recipe also doubles/triples/quadruples easily, so if you find yourself flush with peppers, you can ferment a big batch and make a few different styles of hot sauce for yourself, or divide it into smaller jars for gifts.

Homemade hot sauce is one of those things that people really delight in (assuming they like hot and spicy things), because, well, it’s not another jar of jam.

Try this: Balsamic Fig Jam With Black Peppercorn

(Not that there’s anything wrong with jam, by the way… but I’ve collected enough jam from crafty friends, wedding favors, and my own canning sessions to last through a few zombie apocalypses at this point.)

The key ratio to keep in mind is 2 percent salt of the total weight of the peppers.

This ensures the proper balance of bacteria in the peppers, as the salt will be just enough to inhibit bad bacteria, but not so much that it prevents all the good bacteria from getting their ferment on. I recommend using a sea salt, pickling salt, or kosher salt without any additives.

Pile of assorted hot chile peppers on a cutting board

What kind of peppers can you ferment?

That’s entirely up to you. I like a mash-up of all the different chile peppers from my garden (many of which are on the super spicy side), but you can choose to ferment only one variety at a time.

This allows you to make a hot sauce that leans toward mild, fruity, or smoky, depending on what type you use. You can tone down the flavor even more by adding a sweet (bell) pepper to the mash.

For different styles of sauce you can create once the peppers have fermented, keep reading!

Mason jar filled with homemade fermented hot sauce

Fermented Hot Sauce

Makes 1 1/2 cups

Ingredients

3/4 pound fresh chile peppers
1/4 ounce sea salt
4 garlic cloves
Vinegar (optional)

Instructions

Trim the stems from the peppers. If they don’t pull off easily, I like to leave the little green caps on the peppers (but still remove the long stems). The caps impart a subtle, earthy perfume to the final sauce.

Serrano peppers with their stems and caps detached
Chile peppers destemmed with their green caps intact

Combine the peppers, salt, and garlic in a food processor and pulse until the mixture resembles a coarse mash. (You can also mince the peppers by hand, but I find that a food processor extracts more liquid from the pods.)

Mixture of hot peppers pulsed in a food processor

Pour the pepper mash (and all the liquid) into a quart jar. Tamp down with a spoon or rubber spatula to expel more liquid from the bits and pieces, and cover the jar with a lid.

Aerial view of hot chile pepper mash in a jar
Mini rubber spatula tamping down chile pepper mash in a jar
Jar with canning lid placed on top of it

You want to allow the fermentation gases to escape, so don’t seal it tightly — I simply leave a canning lid on (without the band) to keep out dust and pests. (A kitchen towel or several layers of cheesecloth also works to cover the jar.)

Store the jar at room temperature out of direct sunlight, but in a spot where you’ll see it every day. Stir it up with a clean utensil once a day, and tamp the mixture down with a spoon to submerge the peppers in liquid again.

When you start to see bubbles inside the jar, that’s a sign that fermentation is actively taking place.

Close-up of lactic acid bacteria bubbles in an actively fermenting jar of chile peppers

The peppers will slightly expand and continue to release liquid as they ferment. If your mash doesn’t seem “juicy” enough to keep most of the peppers sitting in liquid, you can add a few spoonfuls of filtered water to the jar, but keep it light — you don’t want to dilute the hot sauce too much.

Jar of chile peppers fermenting on a counter

If you start to see a white film on the surface of the mash (a sign of lactic acid bacteria thriving in there), you can either skim it off (if it’s thick) or stir it in (if it’s only small patches), and start stirring the mash at least twice a day to keep it from coming back.

The film (known as kahm yeast) is harmless health-wise, and forms when the peppers are exposed to oxygen on the surface, which is why frequent stirring, or keeping them submerged in liquid, is important.

Depending on the ambient temperature of your room, it can take anywhere from one week to four weeks for the peppers to ferment. Warmer temperatures will help them ferment faster.

Generally, I know it’s ready when the mash doesn’t smell as spicy (like burns-off-your-nose-hairs spicy) and starts smelling sweet and sour (while still having a spicy kick).

It’s a strong yet pleasant smell, and you’ll notice at the end of the week (or up to four weeks), the peppers will soften and break down further. Don’t be afraid to taste it!

Fully fermented hot chile peppers ready to be bottled

At this stage, you’re ready to process the peppers into hot sauce.

Take your pick of these hot sauce variations

If you like your sauce with a bit more body, you can puree it in a blender (seeds and all) until smooth. It takes on a slightly chunky, sambal oelek-like texture (think Huy Fong’s Asian chili garlic sauce) that’s more suitable for spooning onto food.

Spoon scooping up a portion of blended fermented chile peppers

If you like a thin, pourable sauce, you can strain the peppers through a fine mesh sieve, a food mill, or a few layers of cheesecloth to separate the liquid from the solids.

Bottle the liquid and you have your very own hot sauce. (I recommend fermenting at least a couple pounds of peppers to produce a decent amount of sauce this way.)

Fermented hot peppers being strained in a jar to make hot sauce

If you like a tangy Louisiana-style hot sauce (think Tabasco), simply measure out the liquid you just strained and add about one-third to one-half its amount in vinegar.

You can use any kind of vinegar here: wine vinegar, sherry vinegar, rice vinegar, cider vinegar, or plain white vinegar. Each one will give a slightly different flavor profile to the finished hot sauce.

Strained fermented hot sauce made from chile peppers

And if you feel your hot sauce could use a little zest or a touch of sweetness, feel free to adjust it before bottling — maybe all it needs is a splash of balsamic vinegar, a touch of mango juice (mmmm!), or a spoonful of sugar.

Once the flavor is to your liking, store the hot sauce in your fridge to slow down the rate of fermentation.

Because of the lactic acid bacteria, fermented hot sauce never goes “bad,” but it continues to turn more sour as it ages. The colder your fridge (say, in the very back of the shelf), the longer your hot sauce will keep its optimal flavor.

Yield: 1 1/2 cups

Fiery Fermented Hot Sauce: 3 Simple Variations

Chunky fermented hot sauce in a jar

Learn how to turn 3 simple ingredients into fermented hot sauce, then turn that fermented hot sauce into 3 different kinds of hot sauce and chile pepper paste.

Prep Time 20 minutes
Additional Time 14 days
Total Time 14 days 20 minutes

Ingredients

  • 3/4 pound fresh chile peppers
  • 1/4 ounce sea salt
  • 4 garlic cloves
  • Vinegar (optional)

Instructions

  1. Trim the stems from the peppers. If they don't pull off easily, I like to leave the little green caps on the peppers (but still remove the long stems). The caps impart a subtle, earthy perfume to the final sauce.
  2. Combine the peppers, salt, and garlic in a food processor and pulse until the mixture resembles a coarse mash. (You can also mince the peppers by hand, but I find that a food processor extracts more liquid from the pods.)
  3. Pour the pepper mash (and all the liquid) into a quart jar. Tamp down with a spoon or rubber spatula to expel more liquid from the bits and pieces, and cover the jar with a lid.

    You want to allow the fermentation gases to escape, so don't seal it tightly — I simply leave a canning lid on (without the band) to keep out dust and pests. (A kitchen towel or several layers of cheesecloth also works to cover the jar.)
  4. Store the jar at room temperature out of direct sunlight, but in a spot where you'll see it every day.
  5. Stir it up with a clean utensil once a day, and tamp the mixture down with a spoon to submerge the peppers in liquid again.

    When you start to see bubbles inside the jar, that's a sign that fermentation is actively taking place.

    The peppers will slightly expand and continue to release liquid as they ferment. If your mash doesn't seem "juicy" enough to keep most of the peppers sitting in liquid, you can add a few spoonfuls of filtered water to the jar, but keep it light — you don't want to dilute the hot sauce too much.

    Depending on the ambient temperature of your room, it can take anywhere from one week to four weeks for the peppers to ferment. Warmer temperatures will help them ferment faster.

    Generally, I know it's ready when the mash doesn't smell as spicy (like burns-off-your-nose-hairs spicy) and starts smelling sweet and sour (while still having a spicy kick).

    It's a strong yet pleasant smell, and you'll notice at the end of the week (or up to four weeks), the peppers will soften and break down further. Don't be afraid to taste it!

    At this stage, you're ready to process the peppers into hot sauce.
  6. If you like your sauce with a bit more body, you can puree it in a blender (seeds and all) until smooth. It takes on a slightly chunky, sambal oelek-like texture (think Huy Fong's Asian chili garlic sauce) that's more suitable for spooning onto food.
  7. If you like a thin, pourable sauce, you can strain the peppers through a fine mesh sieve, a food mill, or a few layers of cheesecloth to separate the liquid from the solids.

    Bottle the liquid and you have your very own hot sauce. (I recommend fermenting at least a couple pounds of peppers to produce a decent amount of sauce this way.)
  8. If you like a tangy Louisiana-style hot sauce (think Tabasco), simply measure out the liquid you just strained and add about one-third to one-half its amount in vinegar.

    You can use any kind of vinegar here: wine vinegar, sherry vinegar, rice vinegar, cider vinegar, or plain white vinegar. Each one will give a slightly different flavor profile to the finished hot sauce.
  9. If you feel your hot sauce could use a little zest or a touch of sweetness, feel free to adjust it before bottling — maybe all it needs is a splash of balsamic vinegar, a touch of mango juice (mmmm!), or a spoonful of sugar.
  10. Once the flavor is to your liking, store the hot sauce in your fridge to slow down the rate of fermentation.

Notes

If you start to see a white film on the surface of the mash (a sign of lactic acid bacteria thriving in there), you can either skim it off (if it's thick) or stir it in (if it's only small patches), and start stirring the mash at least twice a day to keep it from coming back.

The film (known as kahm yeast) is harmless health-wise, and forms when the peppers are exposed to oxygen on the surface, which is why frequent stirring, or keeping them submerged in liquid, is important.

Because of the lactic acid bacteria, fermented hot sauce never goes "bad," but it continues to turn more sour as it ages. The colder your fridge (say, in the very back of the shelf), the longer your hot sauce will keep its optimal flavor.

Nutrition Information:

Yield:

1 1/2 cups

Serving Size:

1 tablespoon

Amount Per Serving: Calories: 188Total Fat: 2gSaturated Fat: 0gTrans Fat: 0gUnsaturated Fat: 1gCholesterol: 0mgSodium: 2782mgCarbohydrates: 41gFiber: 7gSugar: 21gProtein: 8g

Nutrition information isn’t always accurate.

Did you make this recipe?

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This post updated from an article that originally appeared on October 28, 2014.

About Author

I'm a plant lover, passionate road-tripper, and cookbook author whose expert advice and bestselling books have been featured in TIME, Outside, HGTV, and Food & Wine. The No-Waste Vegetable Cookbook is my latest book. Garden Betty is where I write about modern homesteading, farm-to-table cooking, and outdoor adventuring — all that encompass a life well-lived outdoors. After all, the secret to a good life is... Read more »

37 Comments

  • Sue
    June 27, 2018 at 12:41 pm

    I tried some a friend of mine made from your recipe, it’s great. I think I will try making some with a touch of balsamic vinegar for sweetness, jalapeno and pimento. Thanks for all your suggestions.

    Reply
    • Linda from Garden Betty
      June 30, 2018 at 9:58 pm

      Those additions sound delicious! I love playing with different flavors for homemade hot sauce.

      Reply
  • Peter Sinanian
    August 15, 2017 at 11:57 pm

    Linda, why no olive oil on top like with your fermented salsa? I have tried this pepper sauce and I find the white mold on top off-putting when it mixes in with the fermenting mash. It smells and tastes moldy. What should I do?

    Reply
    • Linda from Garden Betty
      September 3, 2017 at 5:39 am

      I don’t add olive oil on top of the fermenting chiles for the simple reason that all that oil in hot sauce isn’t very palatable. However, when I have a growth of kahm yeast on top of a ferment, I actually scrape it off rather than mix it in. To prevent the yeast from forming, you can try to tamp the chiles down more (to expel more liquid) or add a weight on top of the chiles to keep them submerged. A 4-ounce jelly jar fits neatly inside a 32-ounce widemouth mason jar and works great for this.

      Reply
  • Saiya N.
    November 5, 2015 at 3:29 pm

    I’m soooo planning on making this. What do you think about keeping the peppers coarse instead of blending them? I am a little curious since I mostly use hot sauces when I eat rice.

    Reply
    • Linda Ly of Garden Betty
      November 5, 2015 at 6:25 pm

      You can definitely keep the peppers coarse, seeds and all. And if needed, you can also adjust the fermented pepper mash to your liking with sugar, vinegar, etc.

      Reply
  • Todd Gakk
    September 3, 2015 at 11:05 am

    Thanks for the ideas. I’m currently fermenting a variation of this using 1 lb. of red Fresnos, 1 red bell pepper, 16 red habaneros clipped fresh from my plants, 6 large garlic cloves, a scant tablespoon of pickling salt and 2 tsp. brown sugar. I made a coarse mash using a food processor and got the whole thing going with a couple tablespoons of active ferment liquid from a jar of last month’s fermented cucumbers. It’s bubbling very nicely, and I push the mash down below the liquid level twice a day with a round potato masher. Smells great so far. I just have to decide whether to make sriracha sauce (my original plan) or blend it into jars of super-hot salsa!

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      September 9, 2015 at 5:09 pm

      That sounds delicious! Make half of each!

      Reply
      • Todd Gakk
        September 10, 2015 at 6:01 am

        I’m tempted. I might push the whole batch through a strainer to see how much liquid it yields before I make the final decision, but I’m leaning toward blending the aged, fermented mash into a smooth puree, maybe adding a bit of vinegar as noted in your article, and refrigerating the final product in little jars as gifts for friends. Thanks again for the ideas.

        Reply
  • Sarah
    August 22, 2015 at 2:28 pm

    Any ideas on how to preserve this for the year once it’s fermented? Peppers are all in season here in the fall but I’d love to be able to make several jars and keep them until the following fall.

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      August 23, 2015 at 4:21 pm

      Just keep them in the coldest part of your fridge! The fermentation allows them to last quite a long time; the only difference is they’ll get a bit more tangy the longer they’re stored (so I suggest not seasoning them with vinegar until you’re ready to use them). I still have a jar from last summer that hasn’t been used. 🙂

      Reply
  • Jeremy Heyl
    February 23, 2015 at 12:01 pm

    Made enough and it keeps so good in the fridge- already looking to this years batch. I’d love to try a garlicky version with some wild ramsons I forage here in N. Illinois. Ramsons are identical to Ramps but instead of an onion/leek flavor it has the most potent (think warding off vampires potent) garlic flavor. Also, the whole plant is edible, greens and all. Problem is Ramsons pop up in May/June, my peppers Aug/Sept. Do I freeze them or ferment a pint and refrigerate to use as kind of a probiotic starter when the peppers are ripe? Thanks again Linda.

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      February 23, 2015 at 3:46 pm

      I love wild garlic! I come across them often on hikes through the Eastern Sierra but I think they’re a different variety than ramsons. I think you should freeze them – chop them up, spread them out on a cookie sheet to freeze, then store in a bag or container.

      Reply
  • Jeremy Heyl
    November 12, 2014 at 9:50 am

    Just tried mine after two weeks fermenting- woo hoo hot! I left the tops on red and green serrano, jalapeno, and fish peppers like you suggested- it tastes phenomonal. I added about a tablespoon of liquid I had from a ferment in the fridge to each jar to get it going and I’ve noticed no film on top and I probably didn’t need to stir (I have a few times but just to smell and keep an eye on it). I’m going to let it ferment another week or two before blending into a thick sauce. Thanks for this, I may never buy sriracha again! We had a hard frost here in Chicago with almost no warning two weeks ago and I did this with the newly frozen peppers. This is a great way to use all of the peppers that probably would have been composted otherwise.

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      November 12, 2014 at 4:55 pm

      Ohhh, your aged hot sauce is going to taste amazing after those 3-4 weeks!

      Reply
  • Trang
    October 30, 2014 at 9:10 pm

    Wooo, this looks deliciously spicy!

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      November 3, 2014 at 6:00 pm

      The way I like it!!

      Reply
  • Mike the Gardener
    October 30, 2014 at 7:26 am

    This looks so good! I notice that you have it in a canning jar. Did you can this recipe? I would imagine if you did it would be done via pressure canning I suppose?

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      November 3, 2014 at 5:59 pm

      I used a jar to store the hot sauce, but did not can it. Since it’s fermented, it keeps for a long, long time in the fridge. (You could technically keep it out on the counter as well, but it will continue to ferment.)

      Reply
  • Flying on Jess Fuel
    October 29, 2014 at 11:54 am

    This is awesome! I have three huge plants FULL of jalapenos right now and no idea what to do with them (I already have FIVE jars of pickled jalaps in my fridge). I have been wanted to experiment with fermenting (I have only tried water kefir before, and it was too time consuming to keep up with). So this is perfect! I can’t wait to try it! Thanks so much for the idea! 🙂

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      November 3, 2014 at 6:07 pm

      Enjoy your jalapeno hot sauce! Sounds like you’ll have plenty to ferment. 🙂

      Reply
  • John Hagar
    October 29, 2014 at 7:29 am

    I mix in a little garlic and a little sesame oil after fermenting (yum). Rather than can (must pressure can for low-acid peppers), I save in plastic freezer jars or bags and freeze. Keeps for months. I like habanero mixed with thai chili, ghost and green peppers to moderate that heat.

    THANK YOU!

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      November 3, 2014 at 6:44 pm

      Sesame oil is a delicious add-in to homemade hot sauce!

      Reply
  • Laurie
    October 28, 2014 at 11:36 am

    Great idea. Will this work with peppers that are less hot?

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      October 28, 2014 at 5:49 pm

      Yes, you can make a milder hot sauce using all jalapenos, if you’d like, or add a bell pepper to sweeten up a spicier sauce.

      Reply
    • freedomlover363
      October 30, 2014 at 7:25 am

      I was going to ask the same

      Reply
    • Karen Barle
      June 22, 2021 at 1:32 pm

      Same here. I love the earthy rich fragrance of the spooned dark red (garlic?) pepper sauce in jars on the table in restaurants. I could sniff it all day , but can’t really appreciate too much of the flavor. I wonder if you can use ~red bell peppers with a lesser amount of chili peppers ️ to warm it up, would you get a similar flavor profile? And would it preserve correctly?

      These are wonderful ideas, also in the comments. I love, love getting into diy fermented aspect in everyday foods, and delectable. On the shelf, there is limited option, and they’re not always yummy. I’m probably going to make some for gifts, too!

      Reply
  • Xochi Navarro
    October 28, 2014 at 10:19 am

    This is amazing, you are amazing. 🙂 I am SO doing this!

    Reply
    • Linda Ly
      October 28, 2014 at 5:50 pm

      Enjoy! I’ve been using it on everything lately!

      Reply

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