Exactly as the title says — this is an easy and foolproof guide to starting seeds indoors.
Whether you have a dedicated vegetable bed in your backyard, or a cluster of containers on your patio, it all starts out the same way. Growing seedlings indoors is ideal if you want to get a head start on the season, or if the weather is still too hot or too cold to put anything in the ground.
This simple step-by-step will take you from seed to seedling with a minimum of fuss. Just the stuff you need to know, and none that you don’t. (But if you’re the really-need-to-know type, I’ve added footnotes at the end to explain why you’re doing what you’re doing.)
We’ll start with the basics of what you should gather:
- Seed starting pots
- Seed starting mix
- Seed tray with clear dome (or any DIY drain tray with plastic wrap)
- Spray bottle filled with water
If you’ve already made your recycled newspaper pots, you’re all set. If you’ll be using other seedling pots, make sure they’re clean.1 You can also repurpose household items like egg cartons, Dixie cups, and yogurt cups — just wash them out and poke a few drainage holes in the bottom.
Place two to four seeds on the surface, and gently press the seeds down so they’re nestled into the mix. If your seeds are very small, like basil or mustard, you can leave them uncovered.3 If your seeds are larger, like beans or peas, or they require darkness to germinate, cover them with a layer of vermiculite or seed starting mix equal to their height, usually 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch.
Label each pot. Trust me, you will never remember what you planted where, as all seedlings look the same at birth.
Mist your seeds with water from a spray bottle.4
Assemble your pots in a seed tray (or reuse a disposable aluminum roasting pan, a baking pan, even that plastic container that your cookies came in) and cover with a clear dome (or just plain old plastic wrap).5 If your dome has vents, keep them open to help with air circulation during the sprouting period.
Now you need to add heat. Since sunlight is not essential at this point, your seed trays can be placed wherever it’s warmest in your house, such as an attic, bathroom, laundry room, or kitchen.6
If your seedling pots stay covered in a warm nook, the low humidity will keep your seeds happy until they sprout. High humidity will make them sad. Only spritz the seeds with more water if the mix feels dry to the touch.7
Within a couple of days or a couple of weeks, the seedlings will start to emerge. They’ll look like they’re wearing little seed hats.
Now, they need light. Remove the clear dome or plastic wrap, and move the seedlings to a sunny spot in your house, such as a south-facing window. Continue to keep the mix moist, but not waterlogged.
After your seedlings develop their “true set” of leaves, they are ready to be transplanted.8
If more than one seed sprouted, choose the strongest one and pinch or snip off the others. You can even keep all of them, but be careful separating the roots if the seedlings are close together. Transplant the seedling into a larger container filled with potting mix. Hold it by the cotyledons (the first leaves that appear) and try not to manhandle the tiny roots.
At this stage, you can lightly drench the potting mix using a diluted solution of compost tea or all-purpose fertilizer. Keep it simple, keep it organic, and don’t obsess too much over the nutrients.9
Give the seedling plenty of sunlight each day (at least 12 hours is ideal) to avoid the “leggy” look.10
You can start to harden off the seedling11 by moving it outside under diffused light for a few hours and bringing it back inside each night. Over the next week, move it from diffused sun to full sun, and for longer periods of time, until it’s finally kept outside all night.
After the hardening off period, you can transplant your seedling to its final destination, whether straight into your garden, or into a larger container.
And then, in a couple of months, you can enjoy the fruits (and veggies) of your loving labor!
Footnotes for the Curious
1 This seems obvious, but laziness gets the best of us. Clean pots are key. That dirt from last season, or the leftover soil in the nursery container you brought home, may house weed seeds and bad bacteria. Cleanliness keeps damping off at bay (an untreatable fungal disease that causes seedlings to suddenly keel over and die at the soil line). The simplest prevention is to just swish your pots in hot water and a little soap. back
2 It’s easier to start with pre-moistened mix, as peat-based mixes are harder to wet down uniformly if they dry out in pots. Although peat has a very high water-holding capacity once it’s wet, it actually repels water when it’s dry. Go figure. back
5 This creates a greenhouse effect to keep your seeds moist and warm, the key to germination. Most annual vegetables germinate best in temperatures of 75-90°F. A few, such as radish, will germinate at lower temperatures. Seeds will sometimes sprout in less than ideal temperatures, but the germination period will be longer. back
6 I like to put my seed trays next to my wall heater. Some gardening guides suggest placing your tray on top of a refrigerator, but most appliances these days are energy-efficient and do not give off much heat. back
7 Too much water will make the seeds rot. If your makeshift greenhouse is looking a bit too wet inside, remove the cover or plastic wrap for a few hours during the warmest part of the day to allow air circulation. Mold is no good for seeds, either. back
8 The true leaves are actually the second set of leaves that appear; the first leaves that initially unfurl are not leaves at all, but cotyledons. These leaf-life structures are part of the embryo of the seed, and supply food to the seedling until its true leaves begin the process of photosynthesis. back
9 I like to use home-brewed compost tea or liquid sea kelp. No fertilizer is fine, too, especially if you start with good soil. I have grown healthy vegetables with no fertilizer through a whole season, and could barely keep up with the harvests. back
10 It sounds sexy, but it makes your seedling tall and weak as it channels its energy into straining for sunlight. I also like to gently run my hands across the top of my seedling to simulate a breeze; this slows down initial growth and strengthens the stem. A few brushes a day is all it needs. back